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The first meal of the day, while the Romans breakfasted very lightly the meal expanded in medieval times to include bread and ale; and yet again over the centuries to be what we now call "English Breakfast". The term comes from the first meal of the day "breaking the fast".
"English Breakfast" is a cooked meal comprising the likes of egg/eggs and bacon, with perhaps fried bread, tomato and a sausage. More elaborate versions might include a lamb"s kidney, scrambled rather than fried egg and mushrooms.
The dish developed in late Victorian times, when it became unfashionable to eat lunch. - and for the middle classes replaced the earlier heavier traditions of ale, bread and meat; the Victorians also had a fondness for lightly-spiced bread (similar to our modern fruit loaf), spread with butter, and "wigs" which had been popular since medieval times, made a resurgence. See "English Toasts"; "Whigs"