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A technique for preserving herring's, probably developed in Scotland in the late 13th century.
The fish were first given a long soaking in heavy brine, then strung up and smoked in special chimneys for many hours and finally (like pickled herrings) they were barrelled.
Over the years different lengths of soaking and smoking led to varieties - each with its own "keeping time". "Kippering" was originally a method used on salmon. Red Herring, being almost ever-lasting. See 'Bloater', 'Buckling', 'Kipper', 'Red Herring '