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Juices; Fruit, the development of

Concentrating fresh juices seems easy (by just removing most of its water), but most of the flavour goes out with the water.

It wasn"t until the late 1940"s that Dr. Louis Gardner MacDowell got the idea of over-concentrating juice (he was working with orange), and then adding fresh juice to it. Along with C.D.Atkins and Dr.E.L.Moore, MacDowell evolved the technique of "cutback" concentrating.

Fresh juiceis an uncertai product, varying widely in sweetness, tartness, acidity and flavour. Reconstituted juice, prepared by adding three cans of water to one can of juice concentrate, is predictably uniform in its quality (though it will lack the character of fresh).

Orange juice concentrate plants (one plant can use 8 million oranges a day) reduce the juice to a super-thick viscosity and add a "cutback" which consists of fresh juice and other flavouring elements, notably d-limonene from peel oil. Peel oil is also used in Coca-Cola (which owns Minute Maid) the lemony smell from an empty Coke bottle is d-limonene.

Chilled juices are not concentrated but are merely extracted and flash heated to a temperature of nearly 200

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