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A rice dish originating in the East, and other popular from Eastern Europe through Turkey and beyond - it comes in many guises in the Indian Sub-Continent. Long-grain rice is first sweated in butter, olive oil or ghee - depending on the country, before being cooked in stock (often in the oven).
It is generally then mixed with small quantities of flavourings. These might be pine nuts, currants, ginger and chicken in Iran; chicken livers or mussels in France; mutton and sweet peppers in Turkey; curried vegetables or prawns in India. Variations are almost endless.