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Sauces; French - warm and hot
Alexandra: supreme sauce with the addition of truffles.
Allemande: a classical light-coloured sauce consisting of velouté blended with egg yolks, cream and nutmeg. Sometimes known as Sauce Blonde or Sauce Parisienne,
Américaine: a sauce for fish and lobsters consisting of velouté, pounded lobster, lobster coral, butter, white wine and brandy.
Amiral: a sauce for boiled fish, made with anchovies, capers and lemon zest.
Aurore: a véloute sauce flavoured with tomato purée, and perhaps parsley sprigs (but these must be strained out before serving).
Béarnaise: a sauce made by slowly adding butter to a tarragon-flavoured vinegar reduction, which has been mixed with egg yolks. The process takes place over a gentle heat, or the sauce will separate.
Béchamel: the basis of all white sauces. This is made by slowly adding hot milk to a white roux, and mixing until smooth over a gently heat. Serious cooks add flavour to the milk, by first heating it with a little onion, bay leaf, nutmeg and whole pepper corns.
Bigarade, á la: an orange sauce served with roast duck.
Chaudfroid: a coating sauce, made by mixing aspic to béchamel, cream or mayonnaise. This is then used to coat chicken, fish etc.
Châteaubriand: white wine, demi-glace, shallots, tarragon, cayenne pepper and lemon juice - the traditional accompaniment for Châteaubriand steak.
Choron: a classical sauce made by mixing Béarnaise Sauce with tomato purée.
Demi- glace: a rich brown sauce based on espagnole sauce, usually served with red meat or game - and often forming the base for more complex sauces.
Espagnole: the classic brown French sauce, the basis of "Demi-Glace", and a whole family of other sauces.
Financière: a sauce made from a velouté sauce (made from chicken stock), with finely sliced mushrooms added. The mushrooms should first be gently sweated in butter with a squeeze of lemon juice; this removes the extremely rich taste inherent when frying mushrooms.
Hollandaise: a sauce made by slowly adding butter to lemon-flavoured egg yolks over a gentle heat.
Indienne: classic curry sauce.
Mornay: Béchamel flavoured with cheese. In France this would be Gruyère or Parmesan, but good Cheddar works very well.
Mousseline: Hollandaise Sauce lightened by the addition of double cream.
Nantua: a classical French sauce made with béchamel, cream fish fumet, vegetables, crayfish butter and tomato.
Normande: a sauce from the Normandy area consisting of cream or crème fraiche, apples, cider or Calvados. Used for fish and white meat and poultry.
Parisienne - see Allemande.
Périgueux: a sauce of demi-glace, truffles and Madeira.
Pérgourdine: Périgueux with the addition of foie gras.
Provençale: a classic sauce made with shallots, garlic, meat stock and white wine.
SuprÃªme: a white sauce, using Béchamel as its base, enriched with cream and egg yolks.
Tyrolienne: sauce béarnaise with olive oil instead of butter.
Velouté: basic white sauce (Béchamel), but with a bouillon of chicken, fish or meat used as its base.