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Standard sugar syrup is made by slowly dissolving equal quantities of sugar in water - so 1 kilo of sugar would be mixed with 1 litre of water.
For various confectionary uses this solution has to further heated -
Thread stage: heated to 106ºC; 225ºF. When cooled on a plate, it should form a thread between the finger and thumb.
Soft Ball stage: 112ºC - 116ºC, 234º-240ºF. Make the same test as above, but a soft resistant ball should form between the fingers.
Firm Ball stage: heat to 118ºC; 250ºF. Make the same test as above, but a resistant ball should form between the fingers.
Crack stage: heat to 125ºC; 260ºF. the syrup should harden immediately if the wet handle of a wooden spoon is dipped into it, and when bitten should crack.